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    Different Ways Five Specialised Cells Adapt Themselves In Your Body

    Home / Blog / Different Ways Five Specialised Cells Adapt Themselves In Your Body

    How are Specialised cells adapted for their function?
     Admin  Published On May 24, 2021 | Updated on Sep 12, 2023  General

    From the word 'specialised', you already know that these specialised cells are slightly different from normal ones. In the early embryo stage, the stem cells are all pretty similar. But, by the time a child is born, these cells develop and adapt themselves to perform certain specific functions in the body.

    What Kind Of Cells Are Specialised Cells?

    There are many different kinds of cells in your body that constitute the specialised cells. These cells have unique jobs that they are adept in so that your body can function normally. Some examples of these cells are:

    • Red Blood Cells
    • Nerve cells
    • Muscle Cells
    • Sperm Cells
    • Leukocyte

    All of these specialised cells are different in function from one another to ensure that your body keeps performing the operations it requires for its survival.

    How Do Specialised Cells Adapt Themselves For Their Function?

    Cells must adapt themselves to the specific function that they are assigned to do. Depending on the position, these specialised cells develop some features to enable them to do their work efficiently. Here are some cells and their various adaptations:

    1. Red Blood Cells

    The primary function of red blood cells is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues. They have the following adaptations that allow them to perform this function properly:

    • They contain haemoglobin, which is a pigment that helps carry the oxygen.
    • Unlike other cells, they do not have a nucleus. This allows them to have more space to carry oxygen.
    • They have a large surface area due to their flat disc-like shape. This helps the specialised cells to absorb as much oxygen as they can.
    • Their flexibility allows them to move through narrow blood vessels.
    1. Nerve Cells

    Nerve cells are specialised cells that transmit electrical messages from the brain to different parts of the body. These messages are the only form of communication and help the body perform various functions that the brain dictates. These cells have:

    • Thin and elongated bodies up to 1 metre that helps carry the information over long distances.
    • The ends of nerve cells are branched to connect with other nerve cells and pass on the messages.
    • These cells also have a myelin sheath around them which helps increase the travel speed of the messages.


    1. Muscle Cells

    Muscle cells are specialised cells that help in body movement. These are of three types- cardiac, skeletal and smooth. These three kinds of muscle cells help in different actions in your body and have their unique adaptations.

    • Cardiac muscles – These specialised cells form a net-like structure by branching and joining with each other. They steadily contract and relax without stopping, enabling the heart to keep beating.
    • Skeletal muscles – These cells are attached to the bone and help in your body's skeletal movement.
    • Smooth muscles – These muscles are composed of cells that are like thin sheets of muscles.
    1. Sperm Cells

    Sperm cells are essential for human reproduction. They are specialised cells whose task is to fertilise the egg and enable humans to reproduce. Their adaptive features are:

    • A streamlined body helps these cells to move quickly to find an egg to fertilise.
    • A unique structure in the head called the acrosome allows them to penetrate the ovum.
    • A large number of mitochondria are present in them, which gives these cells the energy to move swiftly.
    1. Leukocyte

    Leukocytes are specialised cells that are responsible for keeping your body free of infections by destroying harmful microbes. Their primary function is to fight diseases and make antibodies. Some of their adaptive features are:

    • They have irregular shapes, which helps them reach the sites of infection easily.
    • The cytoplasm in some leukocytes allows them to change shape and engulf the bacteria to destroy it.

    As you can see, all of these specialised cells show various adaptive features that are essential for them to perform their specific functions. All of these cells work together to ensure complete harmony among all activities within your body.

    Frequently Asked Questions About Specialised Cells

    Just like you, many students have a lot of enquiries regarding specialised cells. Going through these will answer some of the doubts that you have in your mind.

    1. What are specialised cells?

    In a multi-cellular organism, some cells develop and adapt themselves to perform specific functions. These are known as specialised cells.

    1. How many types of specialised cells are there?

    A human body has almost 200 different types of specialised cells that work independently to ensure your body functions properly. These cells differ from each other in all physical properties like size and shape.

    1. Why do we need specialised cells?

    Specialised cells are present in your body to perform specific functions needed for your survival. Without these cells, your entire body would stop functioning.

    1. How are specialised cells formed?

    Specialised cells form in your body through a process known as differentiation. In this process, stem cells produce cells with specific features to perform specific functions in your body.

    The best way to understand how specialised cells work is by equating these cells to human lives. All human beings are born equal, and when they grow up, some specialise as teachers, doctors, scientists, and so on. Similarly, all cells begin as unspecialised stem cells and soon develop adaptive features that make them specialised.

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